Waterless urinals reduce the amount of bacteria present in public restrooms because the bowl remains dry. Normal urine is sterile; it contains virtually no bacteria. Bacteria thrive in moist places, but they die when dry. Standard flush urinals have chronic damp spots in which bacteria can grow, but the dry surfaces of waterless urinals reduce the prevalence of bacteria. In addition, waterless urinals reduce the spread of bacteria through hands because there are no flush handles to touch.